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Jump to: navigation, search[1][2]Bithynia tentaculata, a small freshwater gastropod in the family Bithyniidae[3]Pomacea insularum, an apple snail[4][5]Planorbella trivolvis an air-breathing ramshorn snailA freshwater snail is one kind of freshwater mollusc, the other kind being freshwater clams and mussels, i.e. freshwater bivalves. Specifically a freshwater snail is a gastropod that lives in a watery non-marine (freshwater) habitat. The majority of freshwater gastropods have a shell, with very few exceptions. Some groups of snails that live in freshwater respire using gills. Others need to surface to breathe air.

According to present classification efforts, there are about 4,000 species of freshwater gastropods (3,795-3,972).[1]

At least 33–38 independent lineages of gastropods have successfully colonized freshwater environments.[2] It is not possible to quantify the exact number of these lineages yet, because they have yet to be clarified within the Cerithioidea.[2] From six to eight of these independent lineages occur in North America.[3]

ContentsEdit

[hide] *1 Taxonomy

[edit] TaxonomyEdit

[edit] 2005 taxonomyEdit

The following cladogram is an overview of the main clades of gastropods based on the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005),[4] with families that contain freshwater species marked in boldface:[1] (Some of the highlighted families consist entirely of freshwater species, but some of them also contain, or even mainly consist of, marine species.)


† Paleozoic molluscs of uncertain systematic position

† Basal taxa that are certainly Gastropoda

Patellogastropoda

Vetigastropoda

Cocculiniformia

Neritimorpha

† Paleozoic Neritimorpha of uncertain systematic position

Cyrtoneritimorpha

Cycloneritimorpha: Neritiliidae and Neritidae

Caenogastropoda

Caenogastropoda of uncertain systematic position

Architaenioglossa: Ampullariidae and Viviparidae

Sorbeoconcha: Melanopsidae, Pachychilidae, Paludomidae, Pleuroceridae, Semisulcospiridae and Thiaridae

Hypsogastropoda

Littorinimorpha: Littorinidae, Amnicolidae, Assimineidae, Bithyniidae, Cochliopidae, Helicostoidae, Hydrobiidae, Lithoglyphidae, Moitessieriidae, Pomatiopsidae and Stenothyridae

Ptenoglossa

Neogastropoda: Buccinidae and Marginellidae

Heterobranchia

Lower Heterobranchia: Glacidorbidae and Valvatidae

Opisthobranchia

Cephalaspidea

Thecosomata

Gymnosomata

Aplysiomorpha

Acochlidiacea: Acochlidiidae, Tantulidae and Strubelliidae

Sacoglossa

Cylindrobullida

Umbraculida

Nudipleura

Pulmonata

Basommatophora: Chilinidae, Latiidae, Acroloxidae, Lymnaeidae. Planorbidae and Physidae - all these six families together form the clade Hygrophila

Eupulmonata

[edit] 2010 taxonomyEdit

The following cladogram is an overview of the main clades of gastropods based on the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005),[4] modified after Jörger et al. (2010)[5] and simplified with families that contain freshwater species marked in boldface:[1] (Marine gastropods (Siphonarioidea, Sacoglossa, Amphiboloidea, Pyramidelloidea) are not depicted within Panpulmonata for simplification. Some of these highlighted families consist entirely of freshwater species, but some of them also contain, or even mainly consist of, marine species.)


† Paleozoic molluscs of uncertain systematic position

† Basal taxa that are certainly Gastropoda

Patellogastropoda

Vetigastropoda

Cocculiniformia

Neritimorpha

† Paleozoic Neritimorpha of uncertain systematic position

Cyrtoneritimorpha

Cycloneritimorpha: Neritiliidae and Neritidae

Caenogastropoda

Caenogastropoda of uncertain systematic position

Architaenioglossa: Ampullariidae and Viviparidae

Sorbeoconcha: Melanopsidae, Pachychilidae, Paludomidae, Pleuroceridae, Semisulcospiridae and Thiaridae

Hypsogastropoda

Littorinimorpha: Littorinidae, Amnicolidae, Assimineidae, Bithyniidae, Cochliopidae, Helicostoidae, Hydrobiidae, Lithoglyphidae, Moitessieriidae, Pomatiopsidae and Stenothyridae

Ptenoglossa

Neogastropoda: Buccinidae and Marginellidae

Heterobranchia

Lower Heterobranchia: Valvatidae

Euthyneura

Nudipleura

Euopisthobranchia

Panpulmonata

Glacidorboidea with the only family Glacidorbidae

Hygrophila: Chilinidae, Latiidae, Acroloxidae, Lymnaeidae. Planorbidae and Physidae

Acochlidiacea: Acochlidiidae, Tantulidae and Strubelliidae

Eupulmonata

[edit] NeritimorphaEdit

Primitive "Prosobranch" gilled snails with a shelly operculum.

[edit] CaenogastropodaEdit

A large group of gilled operculate snails, largely marine. In freshwater habitats there are ten major families, as well as other families of lesser importance:

Architaenioglossa
Sorbeoconcha
  • Melanopsidae, family native to rivers draining to the Mediterranean, also Middle East, and some South Pacific islands.[6] About 25-50 species.[1]
  • Pachychilidae - 165-225 species.[1] native to South and Central America. Formerly included with the Pleuroceridae by many authors.
  • Paludomidae - about 100 species in south Asia, diverse in African Lakes, and Sri Lanka.[1] Formerly classified with the Pleuroceridae by some authors.
  • Pleuroceridae, abundant and diverse in eastern North America, largely high-spired snails of small to large size.[6] About 150 species.[2]
  • Semisulcospiridae, - primarily eastern Asia, Japan, also the Juga snails of northwestern North America. Formerly included with the Pleuroceridae. About 50 species.[2]
  • Thiaridae, high-spired parthenogenic snails of the tropics, includes those referred to as "trumpet snails" in aquaria.[6] About 110 species.[2]
  • Family Pleuroceridae, Io fluvialis.
  • [8]Family Semisulcospiridae, Semisulcospira kurodai.
  • [9]Family Thiaridae, Melanoides tuberculata.
Littorinimorpha

[10][11]Clea helena, family Buccinidae.*Lithoglyphidae - about 100 species.[1]

Neogastropoda
  • Buccinidae - 8-10 freshwater species in the genus Clea,[1] native to Southeast Asia. Other Buccinidae are marine.
  • Marginellidae - 2 freshwater species in the genus Rivomarginella,[1] native to Southeast Asia. Other Marginellidae are marine.

[edit] HeterobranchiaEdit

[12][13]Family Valvatidae, shells of Valvata sibirica, scale is in mm[14][15]Acochlidium fijiiensis is one of very few freshwater gastropods without a shell.;Lower Heterobranchia

Acochlidiacea
Pulmonata, Basommatophora

Basommatophorans are pulmonate or air-breathing aquatic snails, characterized by having their eyes located at the base of their tentacles, rather than at the tips, as in the true land snails Stylommatophora. The majority of basommatophorans have shells that are thin, translucent, and relatively colorless, and all five freshwater basommatophoran families lack an operculum.

[edit] As human foodEdit

Several different freshwater snail species are eaten in Asian cuisine.

Archaeological investigations in Guatemala have revealed that the diet of the Maya of the Classic Period (AD 250-900) included freshwater snails.[8]

[edit] Aquarium snailsEdit

In the developed world, people encounter freshwater snails most commonly in aquaria along with tropical fish. Species available vary in different parts of the world. In the United States, commonly available species include ramshorn snails such as Planorbella duryi, apple snails such as Pomacea bridgesii, the high-spired thiarid malaysian trumpet snail Melanoides tuberculata, and several neritina species.

[edit] ParasitologyEdit

[18][19]Life cycle of two liver fluke species which have freshwater snails as intermediate hostsFreshwater snails are widely known to be hosts in the lifecycles of a variety of human and animal parasites, particularly trematodes or "flukes". Some of these relations for prosobranch snails include Oncomelania in the family Pomatiopsidae as hosts of Schistosoma, and Bithynia, Parafossarulus and Amnicola as hosts of Opisthorchis.[9] Thiara and Semisulcospira may host Paragonimus, and Goniobasis (older term including Elimia, Juga and other small high-spired pleurocerid snails) may host Nanophyetus salmincola.[9] Basommatophoran snails are even more widely infected, with many Biomphalaria (Planorbidae) serving as hosts for Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciolopsis and other parasitic groups.[9] The tiny Bulinus snails are hosts for Schistosoma haematobium.[9] Lymnaeid snails (Lymnaeidae) serve as hosts for Fasciola and the

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